Scophthalmids comprise a small family of pleuronectiforms endemic to the North Atlantic. They differ from other pleuronectoids mainly by the presence of elongated fin base in both pelvic fins extending forward to urohyal. Both eyes on left side of head; reversals rare. Dorsal fin origin well in advance of upper eye. Mouth large and lower jaw prominent; maxillary without a supplemental bone. Preopercle with free margin. Scales usually small, in some species they are replaced by bony tubercles. Vertebrae 33-42. Egg with a single oil globule. Coloration is very variable in some species. Size range about 12-100 cm standard length; largest is turbot, <b><i>Psetta maxima </i></b> . Mostly marine, but <b><i>Psetta </i></b> species enter brackish water; benthic on the continental shelf; deepest occurrence down to 800 m in <b><i>Lepidorhombus boscii </i></b> . They feed on benthic invertebrates and small fish. Distributed primarily in the eastern North Atlantic, with one species (<b><i>Scophthalmus aquosus </i></b> ) occurring in the western North Atlantic; information on occurrence of second scophthalmid species <b><i>Zeugopterus punctatus </i></b> in the western North Atlantic (off the Newfoundland coast) (Chanet and Desoutter 2000 [ref. 24742]) is questionable. Monophyly of family is recognized by Hensley and Ahlstrom (1984 [ref.26815]) based mainly on pelvic fin morphology. Family is in need of revision. Classification follows Nielsen (1973 [ref. 6885]). Five genera, with 9 species. <b><i>Psetta </i></b> is recognized as a junior synonym of <b><i>Scophthalmus </i></b> by some authors. The oldest family-group name for this taxon appears to be the subfamily name Psettini Bonaparte 1846, which would be emended to Psettidae. Research is needed to determine if that name was used after 1899; we follow current usage and use Scophthalmidae.</i></b>
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