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Lichia amia
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Lichia amia

(Linnaeus 1758)

Lichia amia was originally described as Scomber amia by Linnaeus in 1758. It belongs to the family Carangidae. It is commonly known as Leerfish but has many other common names such as Leerfish in USA (contiguous states), Garrick / Leervis in South Africa, Xaréu palmeta in Mozambique, Adjanaron in Benin, Likhija in Bulgaria. more common names It is found in Brackish and Salt water.
Species   amia
AuthorWI   Linnaeus [C.]
AuthorNI   Linnaeus
Qualification   ---
Year   1758
Status   Valid
Osteichthyes Osteichthyes
Carangiformes Carangiformes
Family   Carangidae
--- ---
Genus   Lichia
Subgenus   ---

Class   Osteichthyes
Order   Carangiformes
Family   Carangidae
Genus   Lichia
Original Name   Scomber        
Taxon Name   amia
Original Combination   Scomber amia
Original Genus  
Original Genus Species   Scomber amia
OriginalSubGenus   Scomber
Original Author   Linnaeus
Original AuthorWI   Linnaeus [C.]
Original Qualification   ---
Original Year   1758
Original Family  
Original SubFamily   ---
Original Level   species
Type Locality   No locality [= Europe].
Primary Code   ---
Primary Type   No types known
Page   299

SubSpecies AuthorWI ---
Qualification SS ---

Current Subspecies AuthorWI ---

Current Genus Species Lichia amia
Current Species   amia
Current Genus Lichia
Current AuthorWI Linnaeus [C.]
Current AuthorNI   Linnaeus
Current Year   1758
Current Family Carangidae
Current Subfamily
--- ---

Habitat brackish, marine.        
Water Brackish and Salt water
Habitat Notes Garrick.
(Linnaeus, 1758)
A protected species. Minimum legal size is 70 cm. Total length. Attains 150 cm. The garrick is large and elongate with a slightly pointed snout. The overall body colour is
silvery, but the flanks and dorsal surface are dusky to blue-grey and the belly is
white. The fins are mainly dusky. Juveniles less than 10 cm. long have conspicuous,
orange-yellow and black crossbands. This coastal species prefers the wave zone
where it forms small shoals which hunt along the surf backline off beaches and rocky
points. It is one of the most aggressive fish predators and shows great preference for
elf, pinkies and karanteen. Garrick have been known to trap a shoal of baitfish in a
gulley and to systematically consume them. Seasonal migrations occur with garrick
moving to Natal in winter and and to the Cape in summer. Winter migrations usually coincide with the annual sardine run. Sexual maturity is attained at a fork length of
about 60 cm. and spawning takes place off the Natal coast during spring. The
Aghulas Current probably distributes the young among the estuaries of the eastern
Cape, and damage to the estuarine ecology along this coast could affect the
abundance and future of this species. Virtually every specimen has parasites which
are harmless and can be found on the surface of the fish many hours after capture.
The garrick has no major commercial significance, but is a popular sportfish and
frequently provides hours of hectic fishing for shore anglers. It readily takes lures
and live bait, especially whole sardines or mullet. Garrick are particularly vulnerable
to capture on rod and line and over zealous fisherman are urged to moderate their
catches of this fish to ensure continued catches in the future. This species is also
sought after by spearfishermen. It is of fair eating value. The all Africa angling
record is 32.2 kg. The name lichia, corpse-like refers to the leathery skin and greyish
colour and amia is an ancient name for a bonito-like fish. Leervis comes from the
Dutch 'leer' meaning leather. Mediterranean Sea, southward along entire African
coast and around the Cape to Delagoa Bay.
Depth Range From 0 to 50 meters.

Current Summary   Valid as Lichia amia  (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.
Name History   •Valid as Hypacanthus amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Staiger 1973:230 [ref. 7106]). •Valid as Lichia amia (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:377 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:831 [ref. 13676], Smith-Vaniz 1986:652 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:315 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:740 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:681 [ref. 21590], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:158 [ref. 25472], Arruda 1997:83 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:84 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S7 [ref. 28536], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:308 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:40 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:84 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:92 [ref. 30517], Wirtz et al. 2007:32 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:44 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:361 [ref. 33547], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2491 [ref. 34618], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864]).

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aculeatus Lichia aculeatus (Bloch [M. E.] 1793)Synonym
albacora Lichia albacora Guichenot [A.] 1848Uncertain
argenteus Lichia argenteus (Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833)Synonym
carolina Lichia carolina DeKay [J. E.] 1842Synonym
exoleta Lichia exoleta Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832Synonym
flexuosus Lichia flexuosus (Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1823)Synonym
glauca Lichia glauca (Linnaeus [C.] 1758)Synonym
glaucus Lichia glaucus (Linnaeus [C.] 1758)Synonym
lysan Lichia lysan (Forsskål [P. S.] 1775)Synonym
moadetta Lichia moadetta Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831Synonym
pappei Lichia pappei Bleeker [P.] (ex Castelnau) 1859Synonym
quiebra Lichia quiebra Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825Synonym
sinuosa Lichia sinuosa Cuvier [G.] 1829Synonym
tetracantha Lichia tetracantha Bowdich [S. L.] 1825Synonym
tolooparah Lichia tolooparah Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829Synonym
vadigo Lichia vadigo (Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801)Synonym
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